Lotus Esprit 1976-1988
The Esprit has a reputation for delivering
a great driving experience
but designed-in fragility. Is it justified?
Sharp-edged wedges were the order of the day in the Seventies, when Giorgetto Giugiaros original Lotus Esprit was unveiled as the Silver Car concept at the Turin motor show in 1972. Based on a Europa twin-cam chassis, it was developed to the point where the first Esprit prototype was displayed at the 1973 Geneva salon.
It was another three years before the first customer cars were delivered, and as was typical in the mid-Seventies, the customers were left to finish the cars development The Europa had never been regarded as a particularly desirable car, having unattractive styling and poor interior packaging. The Esprit had to address these issues, and that the concept still looks fresh today (if a little passe in execution) is testament to the team that produced it.
iugiaro had wanted to call the car Kiwi, but Lotus management was intent on a name beginning with the letter E, as is Lotus tradition. A trawl through the dictionary came up with Esprit, which it felt summed up the cars prightliness.
Even before the project had been properly instigated the choice of powerplant was never in doubt, with Lotus hailing recently completed development of its Type 907 twin-cam engine. Mounted ahead of the rear axle line, the unit has become one of the all-time greats.
When the new car made its debut, Car magazine compared it with the Countach, largely because of its dramatic, sharp edged styling. By then Lotus was synonymous with fine-handling cars; and Car reckoned the Esprits handling and performance were as sharp as its design.
In good condition the car can still hold its own against the current crop of junior supercars but you have to buy wisely. Steve Williams is based in Windsor his company specialises in the servicing and maintenance of all Lotuses and hes our guide through the maze that is buying a Giugiaro Esprit.
Body and chassis
lotus pioneered a production method called Vacuum Assisted Resin Injection (VARI) which created a particularly strong and durable glassfibre shell. All its post-1975 cars use this technology, but the shells are heavy considering their plastic construction.
The Esprits chassis is equally durable, but accident damage and rot which is mercifully rare are not easy to repair. The only proper solution is to fit a replacement chassis, (they are now galvanised). The chassis itself is £1500, but add in replacement suspension bushes, steering rack and brake pipes and the cost doubles. Getting a specialist to replace it will add another grand or so.
All Esprits from the S2.2 onwards are fitted with a galvanised chassis, and many built before then have since had one fitted. Steve comments: If youre, looking at an S1 or S2 make sure the chassis hasnt corroded; the only way to check is to put the car on ramps. Between the chassis and the bodyshell theres an insulating layer of felt, which absorbs water then corrodes the chassis. Its not possible to check the top of the chassis as its out of sight, but if you tap the metal with a hammer you should hear a crisp clang. If you dont its likely the metal has started to dissolve.
Body panels are also available in fact. if you need
a new shell its possible to buy one. Because the shells are strong,
the only issue with these cars is poorly repaired accident damage. Any repairs
should be completely invisible, but cracks, splits and general unevenness
all indicate the work of a bodge artist.
While youre inspecting the bodywork take a look at the nearside rear wing. Loose cargo in the boot sometimes whacks the inside of the panel leading to star-shaped cracks. The offside isnt similarly afflicted because the battery prevents anything from making contact with the wing.
The Esprits nose is prone to stone chips, but at least theres no resulting rust. More serious is stone damage to the bodywork if the panels are hit hard enough by flying debris, youll find those star-shaped cracks again. The only way to fix this is to grind the, glassfibre back and insert fresh matting, which is labour intensive if theres a big area to be treated.
There were three versions of the all-alloy Lotus twin-cam engine fitted to the Esprit. The 2.0-litre is designated type 907, the 2.2-litre carries the type 912 tag and the 2.2-litre turbo is known as the type 910. All the engines will cover 100,000 miles quite happily between rebuilds as long as 6000-mile service intervals have been adhered to.
Engines in the Turbo HC are much stronger, with an uprated
cambelt, along with stronger carriers, covers, pistons, liners and turbo.
From here on, the pistons and liners were of Nicasil-coated aluminium, which
is more durable.
Because the oil pump is set high on the engine it takes a while to draw the lubricant from the sump. So make sure an oil filter with an anti drain valve has been fitted if it hasnt, the big-end noise thats inevitable for the first few seconds will be audible for much longer. Steve warns: Some owners try to economise by fitting a Ford oil filter, which is half the price of a genuine lotus one, but with the real thing weighing in at just £12 and the Ford one not being up to the job. its a bit of a false economy.
Expect to see 35psi at 3500rpm once the engine is up to temperature, and at tickover dont be alarmed if theres just 5psi showing on the gauge. According to the handbook, there should be no less than 45psi with the engine singing away at 6500rpm.
All Esprit engines should have their belts replaced at 24,000-mile intervals or every two years, so check this has been done. Servicing should also have been carried out every six months or 6000 miles.
The 907 engine often leaks oil from the cam carriers and covers. The oil drips onto the exhaust manifold and gets burned off dont just tighten the carriers or covers as damage will result from stripped threads and distortion. Because of these leaks (often caused by cam cover gasket failure) the engine may start to misfire, as the oil will collect in the spark plug recesses.
The heating and cooling cycle combined with poor cooling suffered by the exhaust manifold causes it to crack after a while. Make sure its not blowing when cold, as replacement may not be straightforward. If youre buying a non-Turbo you might get away with just four hours to replace the part, but a Turbo with problems requiring cylinder head removal could take up to 12 hours. With official Lotus dealers charging up to £75 per hour and a manifold costing anywhere between £300-400 and more, you could quickly blow a large hole in your budget.
Says Steve: Its also paramount that you keep an eye on the boost pressure gauge when you give the car a test run. The wastegates are prone to seizing, so as well as watching that the gauge peaks at 0.8bar, listen out to ensure its operating properly You should be able to hear it quite clearly.
Cooling systems were a constant source of development because of overheating problems. The low-slung radiator can leak (without it being obvious) and head gasket failure or even warped cylinder heads are not unheard of.
All Esprit engines will run happily on super unleaded, as they are all fitted with valve seat inserts. Steve recommends the addition of a lead substitute to boost the octane rating and help prevent pinking.
The rear suspension design of S1 and S2 models is such that the universal joints and (Maxi front) wheel bearings dont last long. Steve recommends you ask if the correct hardy-Spicer items have been specified, as anything else wont last long. Look for evidence that the wheel bearings have been greased regularly. Esprit S3s onwards have a much more durable design.
The five-speed gearbox is the same as that found in the Citroen SM. If the spigot bearing hasnt been greased it will fail, wrecking the crankshaft in the process. Theres no way of checking this has been done without removing the gearbox. but if the owner claims that the clutch has been replaced recently, ask if the spigot bearing was replaced at the same time.
Steering and suspension
Steering racks on S3s and later wear more quickly than on earlier models, as the wider wheels and tyres put a greater strain on it. Dont expect to see more than 48,000 miles out of a rack a hard-driven car could eat its rack in half that mileage and a new one will set you back £200, along with the bill for replacement.
If the steering seems impossibly heavy its probably because the universal joint on the steering column has seized, which will cost £20 to replace (plus fitting).
The front suspension of post-1985 cars is Toyota-derived and reliable. Before this date, the design was based on the Elan system, with trunnions that needed regular oiling. Check the lower wishbones, which can crack near the anti-roll bar mountings.
Brakes and wheels
Because theres no method of lubricating the handbrake, it tends to seize; it also tends to get kicked with monotonous regularity because the lever is mourned on the sill. On S1 and S2 models, the mounting can break away, but the introduction of the S3 brought with it a strengthened mounting.
S1s were fitted with Wolfrace alloy wheels, adding to the kit car look. From the S2 onwards Esprits were fitted with Speedline wheels. Early S3s featured BBS wheels, which are now very hard to source fronts are all but unobtainable.
The Esprit doesn't suffer the poor electrics that
often plague glassfibre cars,
but do check headlamp relays
Plastic cars often have unreliable electrics, but the Esprit doesnt suffer too badly. The window motors can seize because of corrosion and the glovebox-mounted fusebox can lead to problems when the fuses get knocked by luggage, but thats about it.
It seems that once a car starts to suffer from electrical glitches it will get progressively worse. So if there are things starting to go wrong, make sure youre aware of the extent of the problems. Headlamp relays are worth checking, as these will be one of the first trouble-spots.
Various trim materials were used, including leather, cloth and Marquasite, which is similar to crushed velvet. The leather trim (available as half or full) tends to crack with age, especially on the drivers seat.
Essex cars were fitted with air-conditioning, and the system is normally pretty reliable as long as its been look after.
The bonded screens of S1 and S2 models were state of the art when new, but they dont age very well. Check if the screen has been resealed since it came off the line if it hasnt, itll be due before long. Resealing the screen costs £100 or so, but if the screen cracks when its being removed (which is likely) the cost will quadruple. Check the dash and footwells for deterioration because of water ingress.
Window frames for the side glass are powder-coated but not very well. Replacements are available but if caught in time the metal can be refinished.
Panels are available and, as the shell is plastic, you wont have to worry about hidden rust. Thats not so with the chassis, but with replacements available thats another thing you dont have to worry about. The problems are with the smaller trim items, although theres still an amazing amount turning up at autojumbles and through the club.
Rolling restorations are easy with the Esprit if the car youre looking at has poor paintwork you know the bodywork wont deteriorate while youre saving your pennies. The secret, as ever, is to buy the best you can afford and be choosy when looking. And dont be tempted to buy an S1 just because thats what was in the Bond film later models are better screwed together.
LOTUS ESPRIT S1
a 1973 cc four-cylinder in-line, 16-valve DOHC, two DellOrto carburettors.
Power and Torque
160bhp @ 6200rpm
140lb ft @ 4900rpm
Five-speed manual, rear-wheel drive
Discs front and rear
Front: coil over damper with unequal length wishbones, anti-roll bar.
Rear: independent trailing arms with coil over damper
Top speed: 124mph
0-62mph: 8.6 sec
WHICH IS WHICH?
The Esprit S1 first showed its face at the 1974 Paris salon,
although promotion problems prevented it from going on sale until June 1976.
It was powered by an in-house, 1973cc, aluminium engine developing 160bhp.
This was bolted directly to the chassis (so the driveshaft could act as
a suspension arm), leading to poor levels of refinement just 744
The S2 debuted in June 1978, featuring an improved interior, Speedline wheels and SD1 taillights 1,060 were produced. Power remained at 160bhp and, to commemorate Mario Andretti becoming F1 World Champion, 147 JPS black and gold special editions were built.
In February 1980, the engine was stroked to 2174cc and the Esprit became the S2.2. From here on a galvanised chassis was standard, but only 88 S2s were made. The Turbo Esprit was launched in February 1980, as the Essex. With 210 bhp it cost nearly £20,000 100 were planned but just 57 were made. With proper rear suspension, the car was much smoother and quieter. Spilt-rim Compomotive alloy wheels were fitted.
In April 1981, the normally aspirated Esprit became the S3, with the same chassis and suspension as the Turbo for greater refinement; 767 rolled off the line. At the same time, the Turbo became a regular production model with a reduced trim specification and a price reduction to £16,928. Dry-sump lubrication was a feature until 1983 a carry-over from the Essex. 1,658 were produced. The final version of the Giugaro-designed Esprit surfaced in 1986: the 215bhp Turbo HC, standing for High Compression. A year later Peter Stevens restyled Esprit went on sale.
Unless youre looking for a project car (and make sure thats what you really want) youre going to have to find at least £4000 to buy an Esprit. For That money it wont be ready to show or perhaps even use if its later than an S2. Buying an S1 may seem very romantic if youve just been watching James Bond, but the cars were troublesome then and theyre no easier to Iive with now.
CARS FOR SALE
Oil filter (S3) £12
Front damper (S1/2) £58
Clutch (S2 complete) £240
Steering rack (S3 front) £232
Brake disc (S1/2 front) £21
Brake disc (S1/2 rear) £78
Brake pads (S3 front) £14
Brake pads (S1/2 rear) £25
Front bumper (S1) £153
Engine cover (S1) £65
Windscreen (S1/2 tinted) £290
Prices from Christopher Neil
repairs, servicing, parts
Club Lotus member Trevor Cook bought his 1976 Esprit S1 two years ago, having searched the UK and Ireland for a good one.
His first Lotus (Trevor had wanted an Esprit S1 since seeing
one in The Spy Who Loved Me) had to be a series 1, which are increasingly
difficult to source in good condition. With just 744 made, and most of those
exported, there arent many decent ones from which to choose. In the
end the yellow S1 pictured was bought, with just 20,600 miles recorded,
which he found just a few minutes from his Middlesex home.
A previous owner had Lotus dealer network connections, and even better, the car had been stored for nearly 12 years along with bits that are hard to source things like rolls of the interior trim used for the seats and dash top. Although a full interior restoration isnt needed yet, its reassuring to know such items which normally scupper the concours restorer are to hand.
Apart from fettling the cooling system, the car hasnt
needed much work. Trevor reckons theres a bit of detailing to be done
on the fascia to make it truly outstanding and once thats done he
hopes to use it for local club meetings.
Although his car is irreplaceable, Trevor is no longer convinced that the S1 is the model to go for: The design and build of the S1 is abysmal. Nothing fits, whereas on the subsequent cars things were generally sorted. I wouldnt recommend an S1 to anyone unless they know what theyre taking on but theres no way I would be parted from mine.
Esprit Turbo John Simister.
A bit of a coffee table book at first glance, Simisters book is actually very informative. Not only is The history of Lotus and its models covered, but the Silver Car is in there along with details of how the cars were built, the advent of Stevens redesigned car and what its like to drive.
Esprit The Complete Story
Jeremy Walton. £14.99
There arent many avenues left unexplored here. Lotus and the people behind the Esprit are discussed along with the development of The Giugaro concept and the subsequent prototype. Production derivatives are all charted with a focus on the original design. Plenty of facts and figures but more period shots would be nice.
Since the 70s (Volume 2)
Graham Robson. £8.99
One of the excellent Collectors Guide series, Robsons book isnt restricted to the Esprit. With plenty of context setting, DeLorean and Talbot collaborations are included along with the ill-fated Etna project. But most of the book is taken up with the Esprits conception and development. Great value and very informative.
Milnes, Steve Williams and Trevor Cook (owner of the Esprit S),
members of the Berks, Bucks and Oxon region of Club Lotus